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Research: Forensic analysis of the Tor browser bundle

Internet browsers currently represent the most commonly used means for accessing the internet from any platform. Due to the recent large number of online incidents that involve the leakage of personal data, users have become highly aware of the threat imposed by adversaries who can breach their personal data, in addition to vulnerable applications that can compromise their privacy and ... Read More »

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Utilizing sequential rule data mining to predict hacker adoption on dark web hacking forums

During the present era of communication technologies, the magnitude of data is expanding almost every hour. Extraction of knowledge, or more especially data mining of large volumes of data, represents a considerable challenge. Even though there are currently a myriad of effective methods for knowledge discovery, when data mining is considered, sequential rule mining represents one of the most vital ... Read More »


Bibliometric analysis of botnet identification approaches

Botnets have increasingly become tools for a myriad of cyber criminal activities including phishing, distribution of malware, cryptojacking, distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, click fraud, phishing, and much more. A botnet represents a logical group of internet connected machines including computers, mobile devices, or IoT devices, known as bots, whose security have been compromised by the “bot herder”, the ... Read More »


Bitcoin as a new form of money – A forensic point of view

Cryptocurrencies, namely bitcoin, have been involved in hundreds of criminal cases during the past few years. A recently published book titled “The Forensic Economist’s Guide To Cryptocurrency” aims at presenting a guide to cryptocurrency for forensic economists. The book is based on material that the author submitted as an expert witness in various civil and criminal cases involving bitcoin and ... Read More »


A comparative study between Tor and I2P anonymous communication protocols

Tor is inarguably the most popular anonymous communication protocol, providing hundreds of thousands of users around the world with privacy protection and the ability to browse the internet anonymously. On the other hand, the invisible internet project (I2P) enables applications to send messages anonymously in a secure manner via means of onion routing. Both Tor and I2P have been highly ... Read More »


Research: How to secure the Tor network against correlation attacks

Traffic flow correlation represents one of the most commonly used techniques in a variety of deanonymization attacks against users of the Tor network. An attacker who can monitor network traffic on both ends of a communication channel can successfully launch an end-to-end correlation attack. These attacks rely on using statistical correlation methods to identify if a traffic stream originating from ... Read More »

An overview of Symantec’s 2019 Internet Security Threat Report

Every year, Symantec, the provider of anti-virus solutions, publishes its “Internet Security Threat Report”, which presents a detailed analysis of internet security trends in the preceding year. 2019’s Internet Security Threat Report presents a thorough analysis of cyberattacks that took place in 2018, which include formjacking, ransomware, cryptojacking, cloud security breaches, election interferences, and more. Throughout this article, we will ... Read More »

Cubbit launches a decentralized peer-to-peer cloud storage service

The internet was originally innovated to offer humans a decentralized network for computer based communications that is independent of any central entity’s control of data flow. The world wide web was not originally developed to rely on enormous server farms, cloud lock-ins, and high speed networks, as it has evolved to be today. However, it was inspired by concepts of ... Read More »

The costs of different forms of bandwidth DoS attacks against the Tor network

Tor is by far the most popular anonymity communication protocol ever developed, with over eight million daily users. All of these users rely on Tor to obfuscate their connections to the world wide web as well as distributed peers and also to bypass internet censorship by governmental entities that control the internet infrastructure. Tor is used by individuals and businesses ... Read More »


Utilizing darknets in cyber warfare conflicts

Darknets can act as legal anonymity networks that enable journalists, human right activists, whistleblowers, and others to communicate in an anonymous manner and evade censorship. On the other hand, darknets facilitate the trading of various forms of illicit goods and services including narcotics, child pornography, counterfeited documents, weapons, hacking tools, zero-day exploits, and others. As such, darknets represent a major ... Read More »


DICE-E: An ethical approach for identification, collection, and evaluation of darknet data

Our growing reliance on computers and the internet has been associated with a surge in the frequency and complexity of cyberattacks launched by cybercriminals exploiting the dark web. Consequently, security professionals are highly interested in exploring various darknets collectively comprising the dark web to formulate a better understanding of approaches adopted by cybercriminals throughout their attacks. A recently published paper ... Read More »

Research: Competitive strategies in trading of illicit drugs across darknet marketplaces

The online trading of illicit drugs has been becoming more and more popular during the past few years thanks to the advancements in anonymizing technologies, which are exploited in facilitating the trading of various forms of illegal goods on darknet marketplaces, or cryptomarkets. On these darknet based platforms, the trading of any form of illegal products and services can take ... Read More »


Unique perspectives of darknet marketplace consumers

Darknet marketplaces represent an essential part of the dark web, which is mainly focused on illicit drug trading. These marketplaces utilize anonymization network protocols, such as Tor, to promote the privacy of users. Consumers who choose to buy their drugs via these cryptomarkets represent a unique group of individuals who are tech-savvy, and prefer to receive drugs via postal services, ... Read More »


Darknet drug marketplaces – Challenges associated with punishment of criminal actors

The popularity of darknet drug marketplaces, or cryptomarkets, has been skyrocketing during the past few years. Being able to buy illegal drugs in an anonymous manner that can evade monitoring by law enforcement agencies is enticing to a large percentage of drug users worldwide. As such, it is extremely challenging for law enforcement agencies to convict and punish individuals engaging ... Read More »

The onion spider – efficient crawling of visible Tor hidden services

Web spiders, or crawlers, and search engines have contributed greatly to the shape of the internet we use today. The year 1993 witnessed the birth of Wandex, the first ever web spider based search engine, which then indexed just 130 websites. During the following years, many search engines emerged including AltaVista, Lycos, Excite, and Google. The success and ease of ... Read More »