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Tag Archives: tor


Research: Forensic analysis of the Tor browser bundle

Internet browsers currently represent the most commonly used means for accessing the internet from any platform. Due to the recent large number of online incidents that involve the leakage of personal data, users have become highly aware of the threat imposed by adversaries who can breach their personal data, in addition to vulnerable applications that can compromise their privacy and ... Read More »


A comparative study between Tor and I2P anonymous communication protocols

Tor is inarguably the most popular anonymous communication protocol, providing hundreds of thousands of users around the world with privacy protection and the ability to browse the internet anonymously. On the other hand, the invisible internet project (I2P) enables applications to send messages anonymously in a secure manner via means of onion routing. Both Tor and I2P have been highly ... Read More »


Research: How to secure the Tor network against correlation attacks

Traffic flow correlation represents one of the most commonly used techniques in a variety of deanonymization attacks against users of the Tor network. An attacker who can monitor network traffic on both ends of a communication channel can successfully launch an end-to-end correlation attack. These attacks rely on using statistical correlation methods to identify if a traffic stream originating from ... Read More »

The costs of different forms of bandwidth DoS attacks against the Tor network

Tor is by far the most popular anonymity communication protocol ever developed, with over eight million daily users. All of these users rely on Tor to obfuscate their connections to the world wide web as well as distributed peers and also to bypass internet censorship by governmental entities that control the internet infrastructure. Tor is used by individuals and businesses ... Read More »

Firefox implements Tor Browser’s anti-fingerprinting technology known as letterboxing

Mozilla Firefox has just announced that it is collaborating with The Tor Project to add one of its main security techniques to the Mozilla browser. The security technique, referred to as “letterboxing”, will be featured in the stable version of Firefox 67, which is expected to be released in May. What is letterboxing? Letterboxing is a novel anti-fingerprinting technique that ... Read More »

The onion spider – efficient crawling of visible Tor hidden services

Web spiders, or crawlers, and search engines have contributed greatly to the shape of the internet we use today. The year 1993 witnessed the birth of Wandex, the first ever web spider based search engine, which then indexed just 130 websites. During the following years, many search engines emerged including AltaVista, Lycos, Excite, and Google. The success and ease of ... Read More »

Research: Using the Hidden Markov Model to identify Meek based Tor network traffic

Tor is by far the most widely used internet censorship circumvention solution. The Tor browser relies on a unique obfuscation technology known as “Meek” to promote users’ privacy. Meek obfuscates Tor network traffic so that it seems like ordinary forms of internet traffic. However, hidden Markov models can be used to identify Tor network traffic. A recently published research paper ... Read More »


Research: Identifying bitcoin addresses linked to transactions on darknet marketplaces and other Tor hidden services

Due to its pseudo-anonymous nature and decentralized infrastructure, bitcoin has been exploited in darknet marketplaces which facilitate the trading of a myriad of illegal products and services, including illicit drugs, stolen personal data, weapons, hacking tools, and more. The history of bitcoin transactions is recorded on a public ledger, known as the blockchain. However, the real world identity of a ... Read More »

Research: Phishing attacks via Tor hidden services

Phishing is by far one of the most serious threats against the security of personal data. Launching phishing attacks often relies on sending emails that seem to have been sent by a trusted entity. The goal is to trick the recipient to provide sensitive personal information including usernames, passwords, online banking credentials, etc. The emails attempt to deceive the victims ... Read More »


Research: The challenges associated with geographical avoidance of Tor nodes

Traffic analysis attacks are by far among the most serious threats compromising the anonymity of Tor users. When law enforcement agencies or malicious adversaries attempt to deanonymize Tor users, they launch traffic confirmation attacks and observe encrypted traffic in order to extract metadata. When combined with routing attacks, traffic confirmation attacks are extremely efficient in deanonymization of Tor users. Even ... Read More »

Research: Improving Tor circuits’ anonymous communication forwarding strategy

Anonymous communication can be achieved by concealing the relationship between the origin and destination of traffic flow via means of a special method, so that an adversary cannot identify the communication relationship or the data being exchanged between both ends of the communication route. Anonymous protection has to achieve three main goals: recipient anonymity, sender anonymity, and impossibility to correlate ... Read More »

Research: Tor marketplaces as a threat to national e-ID infrastructures

Electronic identification (e-ID) has been increasingly adopted by many states during the past few years. The past decade has witnessed large-scale initiatives in many European countries to develop their very own e-ID infrastructures. These forms of digital infrastructures vary in terms of frameworks, institutional entities involved, and the types of services accessible by citizens via their issued digital identities. Occasionally, ... Read More »

TOR has Released OnionShare 2, a Major Version with macOS Sandbox

After about a year of engaging work from a dedicated team of software designers, developers, and translators, OnionShare has released OnionShare 2, a major next-generation version with exciting updates. OnionShare is an open source tool used to anonymously and securely send and receive files using The Onion Router (TOR) services. Unlike on other platforms such as DropBox, Google Drive, WeTransfer, ... Read More »